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  1. Introduction 9 items
    1. An Identity of Opinion: Historians and July 1914* - Samuel R. Williamson Jr., Ernest R. May 06/2007

      Article Essential reading

    2. The outbreak of the First World War: 1914 in perspective - D. Stevenson 1997

      Book Recommended reading

    3. German nationalism and the European response, 1890-1945 - Fink, Carole, Hull, Isabel V., Knox, MacGregor c1985

      Book Recommended reading See chapter Erich J.C. Hahn, ‘The German Foreign Ministry and the Question of War Guilt in 1918-1919’

    4. Military strategy and the origins of the First World War: an international security reader - Miller, Steven E., Lynn-Jones, Sean M., Van Evera, Stephen 1991

      Book Recommended reading See chapter by Holger Herwig, ‘Clio Deceived: Patriotic Self-Censorship in Germany after the Great War’

    5. July 1914: the long debate, 1918-1990 - John W. Langdon 1991

      Book Recommended reading

    6. The origins of the First World War: diplomatic and military documents 2013

      Book Recommended reading

    7. Forging the collective memory: government and international historians through two World Wars - Keith M. Wilson 1996

      Book Recommended reading

    8. The outbreak of the First World War: 1914 in perspective - D. Stevenson 1997

      Book Recommended reading

  2. Breaking the Consensus – The Fischer School 10 items
    1. Germany in the age of total war - Volker R. Berghahn, Martin Kitchen 1981

      Book Essential reading See chapter by Wolfgang Mommsen.

    2. Germany and the approach of war in 1914 - Volker R. Berghahn 1993

      Book Recommended reading

    3. Economic interest, militarism, and foreign policy: essays on German history - Eckart Kehr, Gordon A. Craig c1977

      Book Recommended reading

    4. The Kaiser and his court: Wilhelm II and the government of Germany - John C. G. Rèohl, Terence F. Cole 1994

      Book Recommended reading See chapter 'Dress Rehearsal in December: Military-Decision-Making in Germany on the Eve of the First World War’

    5. External policies under Wilhelm II

      Chapter Recommended reading Read section The origins of the First World War, pp.139-47.

    6. Wilhelm II: into the abyss of war and exile, 1900-1941 - John C. G. Rèohl, Sheila De Bellaigue, F. R. Bridge 2014 (electronic resource)

      Book Recommended reading Many important sections, but see especially chapter 34.

  3. Revisionism – British Appeasement and the Road to War 13 items
    1. Splendid isolation?: Britain, the balance of power and the origins of the First World War - John Charmley 2009

      Book Recommended reading

    2. The pity of war - Niall Ferguson, Eric Boulton 1999

      Book Recommended reading See chapters 2 and 3

    3. British foreign policy under Sir Edward Grey - F. H. Hinsley 2008

      Book Recommended reading

    4. The rise of the Anglo-German antagonism 1860-1914 - Paul M. Kennedy 1980

      Book Recommended reading

    5. July Crisis: the world's descent into war, summer 1914 - Thomas G. Otte 2014 (electronic resource)

      Book Recommended reading

    6. The foreign office mind: the making of British foreign policy, 1865-1914 - Thomas G. Otte 2011 (electronic resource)

      Book Recommended reading

    7. Britain and the origins of the First World War - Zara S. Steiner, Keith Neilson 2003

      Book Recommended reading

    8. Decisions for war, 1914 - Keith M. Wilson 1995

      Book Recommended reading See Chapter by Keith Wilson, ‘Britain’

  4. Revisionism - The Russian Road to War 9 items
    1. The Great powers and the end of the Ottoman Empire - Kent, Marian 1996 (electronic resource)

      Book Essential reading See chapter by Alan Bodger, ‘Russia and the end of the Ottoman Empire’,

    2. The Ottoman road to war in 1914: the Ottoman Empire and the First World War - Mustafa Aksakal 2010

      Book Recommended reading

    3. The fateful alliance: France, Russia and the coming of the First World War - Kennan, George F. c1984

      Book Recommended reading

    4. Russia and the origins of the First World War - Lieven, D. C. B. 1983

      Book Recommended reading

    5. Battleship diplomacy in South America: 1905-1925 - Seward W. Livermore 1944

      Article Recommended reading

    6. The Russian origins of the First World War - McMeekin, Sean 2011

      Book Recommended reading

  5. The Naval Race 10 items
    1. Militarism in a global age: naval ambitions in Germany and the United States before World War I - Dirk Bonker 2012

      Book Recommended reading See sections on Germany.

    2. Tirpitz: architect of the German high seas fleet - Michael Epkenhans c2008

      Book Recommended reading

    3. 'Luxury' fleet: the Imperial German Navy 1888-1918 - Holger H. Herwig 1980

      Book Recommended reading

    4. Tirpitz and the Imperial German Navy - Kelly, Patrick J. c2011 (electronic resource)

      Book Recommended reading

    5. Strategy and diplomacy 1870-1945: eight studies - Paul M. Kennedy 1984, c1983

      Book Recommended reading See chapter ‘Strategic Aspects of the Anglo-German Naval Race’

    6. The great naval race: the Anglo-German naval rivalry, 1900-1914 - Peter Padfield 2005, c1974

      Book Recommended reading

    7. The naval route to the abyss: the Anglo-German naval race 1895-1914 - Matthew S. Seligmann, Frank Nèagler, Michael Epkenhans, Navy Records Society 2015

      Book Recommended reading The introduction and chapter introductions provide a useful historiographic framework.

  6. Militarism, Land Armaments and Windows of Opportunity 8 items
    1. The arming of Europe and the making of the First World War - David G. Herrmann c1996

      Book Recommended reading

    2. Helmuth von Moltke and the origins of the First World War - Annika Mombauer 2001

      Book Recommended reading

    3. Armaments and the coming of war: Europe, 1904-1914 - D. Stevenson 2000, c1996

      Book Recommended reading

  7. Expectations and War Enthusiasm in 1914 21 items
    1. The pursuit of victory: from Napoleon to Saddam Hussein

      Chapter Recommended reading Read Chapter 5, pp.80-103, The quest for victory in the Schlieffen era, 1890-1914.

    2. War and society in Europe, 1870-1970

      Chapter Recommended reading Read Chapter 3, pp.72-99, The approach to Armageddon, c. 1900-14.

    3. Voices prophesying war, 1763-1984 - Ignatius Frederick Clarke 1966

      Book Recommended reading

    4. Going to war in 1914: a matter of honor? - Avner Offer 01/06/1995

      Article Recommended reading

    5. Anticipating total war: the German and American experiences, 1871-1914 - Boemeke, Manfred F., Chickering, Roger, Fèorster, Stig 1999

      Book Recommended reading See chapter by Stig Förster, ‘Dreams and Nightmares: German Military Leadership and Images of Future War, 1871-1914’

    6. 1914: the unspoken assumptions - James Joll 1968

      Book Recommended reading

    7. Military strategy and the origins of the First World War: an international security reader - Steven E. Miller, Sean M. Lynn-Jones, Stephen Van Evera 1991

      Book Recommended reading

    8. Germany in the age of total war - Berghahn, Volker R., Kitchen, Martin 1981

      Book Recommended reading See chapter by Wolfgang J. Mommsen, ‘The Topos of Inevitable War In Germany in the Decade before 1914’

    9. War machine: the rationalisation of slaughter in the modern age - Daniel Pick 1993

      Book Recommended reading

    10. The Great War and the French people - Jean-Jacques Becker, Arnold Pomerans, J. M. Winter c1985

      Book Recommended reading

    11. An improbable war?: The outbreak of World War I and European political culture before 1914 - Holger Afflerbach, D. Stevenson 2007

      Book Recommended reading See chapter by Roger Chickering, ‘“War Enthusiasm”? Public Opinion and the Outbreak of War in 1914’

    12. France 1914-18: public opinion and the war effort - P. J. Flood 1990

      Book Recommended reading

    13. The last Great War: British society and the First World War

      Chapter Recommended reading Read Chapter 1, pp.9-39, Going to war.

    14. Managing domestic dissent in First World War Britain - Brock Millman 2000

      Book Other reading

    15. France and the Great War, 1914-1918 - Leonard V. Smith, Stâephane Audoin-Rouzeau, Annette Becker 2003

      Book Other reading

    16. France 1914-18: public opinion and the war effort - P. J. Flood 1990

      Book Recommended reading

    17. The spirit of 1914: militarism, myth, and mobilization in Germany - Jeffrey Verhey 2006

      Book Recommended reading

  8. War Plans and Strategies 11 items
    1. The Real Schlieffen Plan - Robert T. Foley 01/01/2006

      Article Recommended reading To be read in conjunction with Zuber's 1999 article.

    2. Field Marshal Sir Henry Wilson: a political soldier - Keith Jeffery 2006

      Book Recommended reading See Chapter 6

    3. The war plans of the great powers, 1880-1914 - Paul M. Kennedy 1979

      Book Recommended reading

    4. Military strategy and the origins of the First World War: an international security reader - Steven E. Miller, Sean M. Lynn-Jones, Stephen Van Evera 1991

      Book Recommended reading

    5. Helmuth von Moltke and the origins of the First World War - Annika Mombauer 2001

      Book Recommended reading

    6. The British way in warfare: power and the international system, 1856-1956 : essays in honour of David French - David French, Keith Neilson, Greg Kennedy c2010

      Book Recommended reading See chapter by Thomas Otte, ‘“The Method in which we were Schooled by Experience”: British Strategy and a Continental Commitment before 1914’

    7. The politics of grand strategy: Britain and France prepare for war, 1904-1914 - Samuel R. Williamson 1969

      Book Recommended reading

    8. The Schlieffen Plan Reconsidered - T. Zuber 01/07/1999

      Article Recommended reading To be read in conjunction with Foley's 2006 article.

  9. The Opening Exchanges 6 items
    1. The First World War: Volume I: To arms - Hew Strachan 2003 (electronic resource)

      Book Essential reading Chapter 3

    2. Believing the Unbelievable - Catriona Pennell 03/2014

      Article Recommended reading

    3. The Eastern Front, 1914-1917 - Norman Stone 1975

      Book Recommended reading

  10. Atrocity – causes and legacy 11 items
    1. The last Great War: British society and the First World War - Adrian Gregory 2008

      Book Recommended reading See Chapter 2

    2. The blood of our sons: men, women and the renegotiation of British citizenship during the Great War

      Chapter Recommended reading Read Chapter 1, pp.17-34, The rape of Belgium and wartime imagination

    3. German atrocities, 1914: a history of denial - John N. Horne, Alan Kramer c2001

      Book Recommended reading

    4. The rape of Belgium: the untold story of World War I - Larry Zuckerman 2004

      Book Recommended reading

  11. Stalemate, Immobility and Attritional Warfare 9 items
    1. Bloody victory: the sacrifice on the Somme - William James Philpott 2010

      Book Recommended reading

    2. Command and control on the Western Front: the British Army's experience, 1914-1918 - G. D. Sheffield, Daniel Todman c2004

      Book Recommended reading See chapter N. Barr, ‘Command in the Transition from Mobile to Static Warfare, August 1914 to March 1915’

    3. Ring of steel: Germany and Austria-Hungary in World War I - Alexander Watson 2014

      Book Recommended reading

    4. Attrition: fighting the First World War - William James Philpott 2014

      Book Recommended reading

  12. Enduring the Trenches 11 items
    1. Trench warfare, 1914-1918: the live and let live system - Tony Ashworth, Eric Boulton 2000

      Book Recommended reading

    2. The stomach for fighting: food and the soldiers of the Great War - Rachel Duffett 2012

      Book Recommended reading

    3. State, society and mobilization in Europe during the First World War - John Horne 2002, c1997

      Book Recommended reading See chapter David Englander, ‘Morale and Discipline in the British Army’

    4. The pity of war - Niall Ferguson 1999

      Book Other reading See ch.12

    5. Surviving trench warfare: technology and the Canadian Corps, 1914-1918 - Bill Rawling c1992

      Book 

    6. Military executions during World War I - Gerard Oram 2003

      Book Recommended reading

  13. The Eastern Front 11 items
    1. Suicide of the empires: the battles on the eastern front, 1914-18 - Alan Clark 1971

      Book Recommended reading

    2. Russia's First World War: a social and economic history - Peter Gatrell 2005

      Book Recommended reading

    3. Making war, forging revolution: Russia's continuum of crisis, 1914-1921 - Peter Holquist 2002

      Book Recommended reading

    4. Military effectiveness: Vol. 1: Thr First World War - Allan Reed Millett, Williamson Murray 2010

      Book Recommended reading See chapter D. Jones, ‘Imperial Russia’s Forces at War’

    5. They fought for the Motherland: Russia's women soldiers in World War I and the Revolution - Laurie Stoff c2006

      Book Recommended reading

    6. The eastern front, 1914-1917 - Norman Stone 1975

      Book Recommended reading

    7. Blood on the snow: the Carpathian winter war of 1915 - Graydon A. Tunstall c2010

      Book Recommended reading

  14. War in the Air 7 items
    1. Great War, total war: combat and mobilization on the Western Front, 1914-1918 - Roger Chickering, Stig Fèorster 2000

      Book Recommended reading See chapter Christian Geinitz, ‘The First Air War Against Non-combatants: Strategic Bombing of German Cities in World War I’

    2. Leadership in conflict: 1914-1918 - Matthew Hughes, Matthew S. Seligmann 2000

      Book Recommended reading See chapter David Jordan, ‘The Battle for the Skies: Sir Hugh Trenchard as Commander of the Royal Flying Corps’

    3. Women and war in the twentieth century: enlisted with or without consent - Nicole Dombrowski 1999

      Book Other reading See chapter Mindy Roseman, ‘The Great War and Modern Motherhood: La Maternite and the Bombing of Paris’

  15. War at Sea 18 items
    1. The British naval staff in the First World War - Nicholas Black 2009 (electronic resource)

      Book Recommended reading

    2. Dreadnought gunnery and the Battle of Jutland: the question of fire control - John Brooks 2005

      Book Recommended reading

    3. The First World War: an agrarian interpretation - Avner Offer 1991, c1989

      Book Recommended reading

    4. British economic and strategic planning 1905-1915 - David French 1982

      Book Essential reading Key text on "Business as usual"

    5. Naval blockades in peace and war: an economic history since 1750 - Lance E. Davis, Stanley L. Engerman 2006 (electronic resource)

      Book Recommended reading

    6. A naval history of World War I - Paul G. Halpern 1994

      Book Recommended reading

    7. 'Luxury' fleet: the Imperial German Navy 1888-1918 - Holger H. Herwig 1980

      Book Recommended reading

    8. The rise and fall of British naval mastery - Paul M. Kennedy 1991

      Book Recommended reading

    9. Warship 2013 - John Jordan, Stephen Dent

      Book Recommended reading See chapter Matthew S. Seligmann, ‘Lion and Tiger at Dogger Bank: the View of the Ships’ Medical Officers’

    10. The Great War at sea: a naval history of the First World War - Lawrence Sondhaus 2014 (electronic resource)

      Book Recommended reading

    11. Business in great waters: the U-boat wars, 1916-1945 - John Terraine 1999

      Book Recommended reading

  16. War in the Middle East 10 items
    1. Shattering empires: the clash and collapse of the Ottoman and Russian empires, 1908-1918 - Michael A. Reynolds 2011 (electronic resource)

      Book Essential reading Chapter 4

    2. Churchill and the Dardanelles - Christopher M. Bell 2017

      Book Recommended reading

    3. Ordered to die: a history of the Ottoman army in the First World War - Edward J. Erickson 2001

      Book Recommended reading

    4. Gallipoli: the end of the myth - Robin Prior c2009

      Book Recommended reading

    5. The Arabs: a history - Eugene L. Rogan c2009

      Book Recommended reading

  17. The Armenian Genocide 7 items
    1. Revolution and genocide: on the origins of the Armenian genocide and the Holocaust - Robert Melson 1996

      Book Recommended reading

    2. The Holocaust and other genocides: history, representation, ethics - Helmut Walser Smith 2002

      Book Recommended reading

    3. America and the Armenian genocide of 1915 - J. M. Winter 2003 (electronic resource)

      Book Recommended reading

  18. American Entry and Victory 16 items
    1. How fighting ends: a history of surrender - Holger Afflerbach, Hew Strachan 2012 (electronic resource)

      Book Essential reading See chapter Jay Winter, ‘The Breaking Point: Surrender 1918’

    2. The legacy of the Great War: ninety years on - J. M. Winter, National World War I Museum at Liberty Memorial c2009

      Book Other reading See chapter Holger Afflerbach and Gary Sheffield, ‘Waging Total War: Learning Curve or Bleeding Curve’

    3. Battle tactics of the Western Front: the British Army's art of attack, 1916-18 - Paddy Griffith 1994

      Book Recommended reading

    4. 1918: a very British victory - Peter Hart 2009

      Book Recommended reading

    5. The First World War: Germany and Austria-Hungary 1914-1918 - Holger H. Herwig 2014 (electronic resource)

      Book Other reading

    6. The myth of the Great War: a new military history of World War I - John Mosier 2001

      Book Recommended reading

    7. The Second Battle of the Marne - Michael S. Neiberg 2008 (electronic resource)

      Book Recommended reading

    8. British generalship on the Western Front 1914-18: defeat into victory - Simon Robbins 2005

      Book Recommended reading

    9. Forgotten victory: the First World War : myths and realities - G. D. Sheffield 2002

      Book Recommended reading

    10. With our backs to the wall: victory and defeat in 1918 - D. Stevenson 2011

      Book Recommended reading

    11. Haig's intelligence: GHQ and the German army, 1916-1918 - Jim Beach 2013

      Book Recommended reading

  19. War and Empire 10 items
    1. The Anzac illusion: Anglo-Australian relations during World War I - E. M. Andrews 1993

      Book Recommended reading

    2. Imperial sunset: Vol.1: Britain's liberal empire, 1897-1921 - Max Beloff 1969

      Book Recommended reading

    3. Race and war in France: colonial subjects in the French army, 1914-1918 - Richard Standish Fogarty c2008

      Book Recommended reading

    4. The British army and the crisis of empire 1918-22 - Keith Jeffery c1984

      Book Recommended reading

    5. Britain and Ireland 1914-23 - Sheila Lawlor 1983

      Book Recommended reading

    6. Reconsidering Gallipoli - Jenny Macleod 2004

      Book Recommended reading

    7. The Anzac experience: New Zealand, Australia and Empire in the First World War - Christopher Pugsley 2004

      Book Recommended reading

    8. The First World War in Africa - Hew Strachan 2004

      Book Recommended reading

    9. Indigenous peoples of the British dominions and the First World War - Timothy C. Winegard c2012

      Book Recommended reading

  20. Ideology, Revolution and Paramilitary Violence 10 items
    1. Wilsonianism: Woodrow Wilson and his legacy in American foreign relations - Lloyd E. Ambrosius, Palgrave Connect (Online service) 2002 (electronic resource)

      Book Recommended reading

    2. Germany after the First World War - Richard Bessel 1993

      Book Recommended reading

    3. Paramilitary politics in Weimar Germany - James M. Diehl 1977

      Book Recommended reading

    4. To end all wars: Woodrow Wilson and the quest for a new world order - Thomas J. Knock 1995

      Book Recommended reading

    5. The Russian Civil War - Evan Mawdsley c2005

      Book Recommended reading

    6. Vanguard of Nazism: the free corps movement in postwar Germany, 1918-1923 - Robert G. L. Waite c1952

      Book Recommended reading

    7. The deluge: the Great War and the remaking of global order, 1916-1931 - J. Adam Tooze 2014

      Book Recommended reading

  21. War, Representation and Memory 10 items
    1. The Great War in history: debates and controversies, 1914 to the present - J. M. Winter, Antoine Prost 2005 (electronic resource)

      Book Essential reading Chapter 8. Agents of Memory

    2. Merchants of hope: British middlebrow writers and the First World War, 1919-1939 - Rosa Maria Bracco 1993

      Book Recommended reading

    3. Rites of spring: the Great War and the birth of the Modern Age - Modris Eksteins 2000

      Book Recommended reading

    4. The Great War and modern memory - Paul Fussell 1975

      Book Recommended reading

    5. The silence of memory: Armistice Day, 1919-1946 - Adrian Gregory 1994

      Book Recommended reading

    6. Memorials of the Great War in Britain: the symbolism and politics of remembrance - Alex King 1998

      Book Recommended reading

    7. The price of pity: poetry, history and myth in the Great War - Martin Stephen c1996

      Book Recommended reading

    8. Sites of memory, sites of mourning: the Great War in European cultural history - J. M. Winter 1995

      Book Recommended reading

  22. War and Gender Roles 9 items
    1. Women and the First World War - Susan R. Grayzel 2002

      Book Essential reading Chapter 3

    2. Women and the Great War: femininity under fire in Italy - Allison Scardino Belzer 2010 (electronic resource)

      Book Recommended reading

    3. The war from within: German working-class women in the First World War - Ute Daniel, Margaret Ries 1997

      Book Recommended reading

    4. American Women in World War I - Lettie Gavin 1997

      Book Recommended reading

    5. Women, war, and work: the impact of World War I on women workers in the United States - Maurine Weiner Greenwald 1980

      Book Recommended reading

    6. Nice girls and rude girls: women workers in World War I - Deborah Thom 2000

      Book Recommended reading

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