1. Week One: Introduction. The role of the media and the concept of framing 6 items
    This week we introduce the role of the media, how it is typically thought that it ought to function within democratic societies and how that might be different from the way it actually operates. We will consider an important concept for analysing media representations: framing. This concept can also be used to think about how PR works.
    1. Set Reading: 6 items
      1. The press

        Chapter Essential reading Read Curran, J., ‘What democracy requires of the media’

      2. Framing Bias: Media in the Distribution of Power - Robert M. Entman 03/2007

        Article Essential reading

      3. Media Images and the Social Construction of Reality - William A. Gamson, David Croteau, William Hoynes, Theodore Sasson 08/1992

        Article Essential reading

  2. Week Two: Introduction to PR 5 items
    This week we look at PR, introducing the different types of PR (such as business to business PR, business to consumer PR, political communications, etc), its principles, ethical challenges, tactics, the different stakeholders PR engages with and how it is different from other forms of communication such as marketing or advertising.
    1. Set Reading: 5 items
      1. Exploring public relations

        Chapter Essential reading Read chapter 1, Edwards, L., ‘Public relations origins: definitions and history’ (NB: This chapter (as authored by Lee Edwards) is not included in the later 2017 edition).

      2. The public relations handbook - Alison Theaker 2016

        Book Essential reading Read chapter: 1 (essential) and a selection thereafter – e.g. 3, 12, 16, 17.

      3. Managing public relations - James E. Grunig, Todd Hunt 1984

        Book Essential reading

      4. Handbook of public relations - Robert L. Heath 2004 (electronic resource)

        Book Essential reading

      5. Exploring public relations: global strategic communication

        Chapter Essential reading Read chapter 7, Tench, R. and Laville, L. ‘Role of the public relations practitioner’

  3. Week Three: PR From a Cultural Studies Perspective 9 items
    Although Public Relations has traditionally been taught within business studies frameworks, this MA is taught primarily using cultural studies approaches. This is in line with the growing awareness of how important cultural contexts are in the framing and consumption of media messages, PR included. This week we look at what a cultural studies approach to PR involves.
    1. Set Reading: 9 items
      1. Public relations, society & culture: theoretical and empirical explorations

        Chapter Essential reading Read Edwards, L. & Hodges, C., ‘Introduction: Implications of a (radical) socio-cultural ‘turn’ in public relations scholarship’

      2. Brand management: research, theory and practice

        Chapter Essential reading Read chapter 10, ‘The Cultural Approach’

      3. Introducing cultural studies - Brian Longhurst 2017 (electronic resource)

        Book Essential reading Especially chapter 1

      4. International public relations: negotiating culture, identity, and power

        Chapter Essential reading Read chapter 3, ‘Global Public Relations and the Circuit of Culture’, pp. 35-50.

      5. Public relations in global cultural contexts: multi-paradigmatic perspectives

        Chapter Essential reading Read Weaver, C. Kay, ‘Public Relations, Globalization, and Culture’

      6. Exploring public relations: global strategic communication

        Chapter Essential reading Read chapter 5, Vercic, D., ‘Intercultural and multicultural context of public relations’

      7. From Chinese brand culture to global brands: insights from aesthetics, fashion, and history - Wu Zhiyan, Janet Borgerson, Jonathan E. Schroeder 2013 (electronic resource)

        Book Essential reading

  4. Week Four: Shaping the agenda: PR and Media Relations 7 items
    This week we look at how Public Relations professionals try and influence the media that shape public opinion, knowledge and perception. We examine recent trends in the media which have increased the power of PR in the news media and the potential problems with that. We will also try and detect which news stories look to have their origins in public relations initiatives and take another look at media framing of organisations.
    1. Set Reading: 7 items
      1. Exploring public relations: global strategic communication

        Chapter Essential reading Read chapter 14, Bailey, R., ‘Media Relations’

      2. Exploring public relations: global strategic communication

        Chapter Essential reading Read chapter 2, Davidson, S., ‘Public relations and the media’

      3. News, public relations and power

        Chapter Essential reading Davis, A. ‘Public relations and news sources’.

      4. The mediation of power: a critical introduction

        Chapter Essential reading Read Chapter 4, 'Media Management and Public Relations: Public Media, inter-elite conflict and Power', pp. 55-73.

      5. PR - a persuasive industry?: spin, public relations, and the shaping of the modern media - Trevor Morris, Simon Goldsworthy 2008 (electronic resource)

        Book Essential reading

      6. Social media and public relations: fake friends and powerful publics - Judy Motion, Robert L. Heath, Shirley Leitch 2016 (electronic resource)

        Book Essential reading

      7. The public relations handbook

        Chapter Essential reading Read chapter 12, Young, P., ‘Media relations in the social media age’.

  5. Week Five: PR, Corporate images and social media 5 items
    This week we look at the importance of cultural questions such as identity, image and reputation for corporations (large organisations operating as ‘privately’ owned profit-orientated). Public relations has a central role in managing these important variable. We also look at the relationship between corporations and social media and the challenges which social media’s decentralised, 24/7, participatory and interactive architecture poses to corporate objectives.
    1. Set Reading: 5 items
      1. Exploring public relations

        Chapter Essential reading Read chapter 10, Frandsen, F. and Johansen, W., ‘Corporate image, reputation and identity’.

      2. Social media and public relations: fake friends and powerful publics - Judy Motion, Robert L. Heath, Shirley Leitch 2016 (electronic resource)

        Book Essential reading

      3. The public relations handbook

        Chapter Essential reading Read chapter 7, Wood, E. & Sommerville, I., ‘Public Relations and corporate identity’.

      4. The public relations handbook

        Chapter Essential reading Read chapter 12, Young, P., ‘Media relations in the social media age’.

  6. Week Six: Political Economy and PR 6 items
    Political economy is the study of economic organisation and its social and political implications. The public relations industry has an economic structure that in its upper echelons connects it to big business and policymaking that favours market liberalisation against publically owned resources. Since the 2007-8 crash, there are increasing questions being raised about our current economic model and this has implications for the PR industry.
    1. Set Reading: 6 items
      1. The Global Public Relations handbook

        Chapter Essential reading Read chapter 2, Duhe, S. (et al) ‘The Intersection of Political and Economic Systems in Global Public Relations Practice’.

      2. Understanding public relations : theory, culture and society

        Chapter Essential reading Edwards, Lee ‘Chapter 4: ‘A Political Economy of Public Relations’

      3. Extending cultural horizons: Political economy and public relations - Krishnamurthy Sriramesh, Sandra C. Duhé 11/2009

        Article Essential reading

      4. Re-examining the economic roots of public relations - Ryszard Ławniczak 11/2009

        Article Essential reading

  7. Week Seven: Crisis Communications 13 items
    When organisations are in crisis, for whatever reason, coherent communication strategies are crucially important to come out of the crisis intact. This week we look at crisis communciations, good practice and bad and the ethical implications of communicating to stakeholders when human well-being is at stake but CEOs may be thinking more about their profit margins.
    1. Set Reading: 13 items
      1. Exploring public relations

        Chapter Essential reading Read chapter 17, Coombs, T., ‘Crisis public relations management’.

      2. New media and public relations - Crisis Management

        Chapter Essential reading Read part VII: 'Crisis Communication'.

      3. New media and public relations

        Chapter Essential reading Overview by Sandra Duhé

      4. New media and public relations - Guidlines for effective crisis managament

        Chapter Essential reading The Social-Mediated Crisis Communication Model: Guidelines for Effective Crisis Management in a Changing Media Landscape by Brooke Fisher Liu, Yan Jin, Lucinda L. Austin, and Melissa Janoske

      5. New media and public relations - The emergence of the paracrisis

        Chapter Essential reading The Emergence of the Paracrisis: Definition and Implication for Crisis Management by W. Timothy Coombs

      6. New media and public relations - What's going on?

        Chapter Essential reading "What's Going On?" Issues and Challenges Involved in Communicating Crisis Events on College Campuses by Joe R. Downing and Mark A. Casteel

      7. Crisis communications: a casebook approach - Kathleen Fearn-Banks 2017 (electronic resource)

        Book Essential reading

      8. Disasters and the media: managing crisis communications - Shirley Harrison 1999

        Book Essential reading

      9. Public relations and social theory: key figures and concepts

        Chapter Essential reading Heide, Matt, ‘On Berger, A Social Constructionist Perspective on Public Relations and Crisis Communication’

      10. Public relations: concepts, practice and critique

        Chapter Essential reading Read Chapter 3, pp. 46-68. ‘Reputation, Image and Impression Management,

      11. Public relations: concepts, practice and critique

        Chapter Essential reading Read Chapter 4, pp. 69-95. Risk, Issues and Ethics.

      12. Risk issues and crisis management in public relations: a casebook of best practice - Michael Regester, Judy Larkin, Michael Regester 2008 (electronic resource)

        Book Essential reading

      13. Handbook of public relations - Robert L. Heath 2004 (electronic resource)

        Book Essential reading Read Seeger, M.,et al, ‘Public Relations and Crisis Communication: Organizing and Chaos’.

  8. Week Eight: Public Relations, NGOs and alternative media 6 items
    All organisations engage in activity that can be called ‘public relations’. Corporations and the state certainly, but also small enterprises and Non-Governmental organisations or Third Sector organisations that espouse public purposes but are to some degree independent of the state. This week we look at PR for these types of organisations.
    1. Set Reading: 6 items
      1. Exploring public relations: global strategic communication

        Chapter Essential reading Read chapter 25, Ashra-Mcgrath, N., ‘Non-governmental organisations and pressure groups’.

      2. News, public relations and power

        Chapter Essential reading Read chapter 7, Anderson, A., 'Environmental Activism and News Media', pp 117 – 132.

      3. Public relations democracy: public relations, politics and the mass media in Britain

        Chapter Essential reading Read Part III, Davis, A., 'Trade Union Public Relations', pp. 109-124.

      4. News, public relations and power

        Chapter Essential reading Read Deacon, D., 'Non Governmental Organisations and the Media', pp. 99-116.

      5. New media, old news: journalism & democracy in the digital age

        Chapter Essential reading Read chapter 9, Fenton, N., 'NGOs News Media and Mainstream News', pp. 153-168.

  9. Week Nine: Public Relations, Culture Jamming and Activism 7 items
    Corporate power, symbolised in the power of the brand, has been subject to anti-capitalist protest, resistance,’ brand jacking’ and subversion, by for example the ‘Yes Men’. These are a form of PR – which often uses humour, pranks, stunts and creative performances as part of their rhetorical strategies. We explore the politics of ‘anti-brand’ counter public relations and how that has actually fed into and influenced public relations campaigns. We also look at how PR has contributed to forms of activism, taking as a case study Manchester United striker Marcus Rashford’s free meals campaign during the Covid crisis, which has twice forced U-turns by the government.
    1. Set Reading: 7 items
      1. Logo Logic: The Ups and Downs of Branded Political Communication - W. Lance Bennett, Taso Lagos 05/2007

        Article Essential reading

      2. No logo: no space, no choice, no jobs - Naomi Klein 2010

        Book Essential reading Previous editions are in stock at the same shelf mark.

      3. Handbook of public relations - Robert L. Heath 2004 (electronic resource)

        Book Essential reading Read Smith, M. & Ferguson, D., ‘Activism’.

      4. The public relations handbook

        Chapter Essential reading Read chapter 20, Young, P., ‘Activism and public relations’.

      5. The Global Public Relations handbook

        Chapter Essential reading Read Dhanesh, G. and Sriramesh, K., ‘The Nexus between Activism and Public Relations’.

  10. Week Ten: Individual tutorials - feedback for first assignment

  11. Week Eleven: Individual tutorials and preparation for second assessment

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